Elazig is a city in Eastern Anatolia, which was founded at the skirt of the hill, where the historical Harput Castle is located. Located at an altitude of 1067 meters above sea level, the city is on a slightly inclined ground. Although Elazığ’s history as the site is new, the history of the region is quite old. Therefore, we should consider the history of Elazığ together with the history of Harput.
According to the historical sources, the earliest inhabitants of Harput were BC. Hurris settled in Eastern Anatolia since 2000. Again according to the historical records after the Hurrites, Hittite dominance under the domination. After the Hittite rule, which did not take long, BC. Since the 9th century, the Urartians who established a state in Eastern Anatolia ruled in Harput for a long time. Even today, the fortress of Harput, which stands with its historical majesty, carries the traces of the Urartian era. There are stairs, tunnels and cell carriages carved into the rock in Kale. B.C. Harput, which is known as fortified place with its castle since the 9th century, has a history of 4000 years. The first syllable of Harput is Har, meaning the stone (rock), the last syllable (berd) means the castle. It means the Stone Castle with its contemporary Turkish.
When we examine the history of Harput in depth, M.S. From the 1 st century to the 3 th century, we see that the Romans remained in the political and military influence from time to time. However, it is also known that in the era of Mithradates, King of Pontus, who made long and hard struggles to remove the Romans from Anatolia, he changed some hands. However, in the 3rd century BC, from the time of the Emperor Dioclatianus, the region of Harput was completely bound to the Roman Empire. Later, the first period of Byzantine domination in Harput, which was always seen as an issue of conflict between Byzantines and Byzantines and which changed from time to time under the domination of the Sassanids and from time to time by the Byzantines, coincides with the middle of the 7th century. But Hz. At the time of Umar, the Arabs seized Syria and Iraq and seized Harput and the surrounding areas in the mid-7th century. The Arab domination that began in this way continued until the mid-10th century. As in the time of the Romans, the Arabs did not find any effective sign in Harput. The region has been the scene of the demonstrations of the Byzantine and Arab political and military forces.
The transition of Harput to the rule of the Byzantines for the second time is 10 th century. The first target of the expeditions against the Islamic world by the Byzantines was always Harput. Indeed, in the first offensive, the Byzantines seized Harput and fortified the fortresses by establishing a provincial organization. In the Byzantine history, Harput was called “Harpote”, which is very close to today’s speech. In fact, the region of Harput is called “Mesopotamia”. Byzantine domination in Harput continued until the end of the 11th century.
Transfer of Harput to the Turks
Harput and its surroundings, 26 August 1071 after the battle of Malazgirt is not definite, but in 1085 was passed into the hands of the Turks. This is the Seljuk period. The first Turkish judge of Harput is Çubuk Bey. Çubuk Bey established a government here on behalf of the Seljuk Sultan, like other Seljuk Umeans. Because he was the successor to his son Mehmet Bey, it was called “Çubukoğulları Devri” in this Harput history. There is no doubt that the Çubukoğulları and the Turkmens who came with them constituted the ancestors of the people of Harput.
This place, which remained in the form of a fortified fortress until the Harput was taken by the Turks, became a growing city with the Turks. After the turn of the Çubukogullari, “Artukoğulları Devri” begins in Harput. This period, which started in the first years of the 12th century, continued until 1234. After they came to Eastern Anatolia with their Turkmens, they came to Harput. These are therefore called “Harput Artukluları”.
In the period of Artukoğulları; It is known that Belek (Balak) Gazi, which is still called Harput and Elazığ, is the most famous Turkish Conqueror of Harput. (In 1965, a beautiful statue of Belek Gazi on the horse was built by Harput Tourism Association.) His most important service was seen during the Crusades. Even those who compared with Selahattin Eyyubi. (Historians state that Balak Gazi’s noble name is “Belek Gazi” in the light of recent research.)
After Balakgazi, the Prince, who came from the Artukids in Harput until 1185, reigned. Fahrettin Karaaslan has an unforgettable place and works in the history of Harput. Karaaslan ruled in Harput between 1148-1174 and built the Great Mosque here.
In 1234, the domination of the Now Dynasty ended in Harput and annexed to the Harput Seljuk Dynasty. In the period of the Seljuks, Harput was ruled by a Subash, and “Arab Baba Mosque” and adjoining shrine in this period