HISTORY OF EDIRNE
It is known that Edirne was founded by the Thracians who migrated from Central Asia and settled here. Later on, in the name of Alexander the Great, the city was rebuilt by Hadrianus from the Roman Emperors and was named as Hadrianapolis. At one time, he underwent the Bulgarian domination and remained in Byzantine rule until he was conquered by Lala Şahin Pasha in 1361 at the time of Murat I. In 1453, the city was the capital of the Ottoman Empire for 92 years until the conquest of Constantinople. In the following years, the city remained a province under the name of kent Pasha Sanjak ’. Edirne, which became the fifth largest city in Europe in the 17th century known as the university city of the Empire, is the second largest city of Thrace after Istanbul according to the 1990 census.
Ainos (Enez) near the BC. In the period of 5500-5000, there was an ancient settlement which was a colony with pottery bearing Anatolian characteristics and fortifications and one of the oldest neolithic cultures known in the Balkans. The Thracians, who later settled in Thrace, feared the great skills of courage and warfare in many countries, because of these qualities, the Athenians and the Romans appointed as soldiers in their armies. A wide variety of settlements were found, from the caves to strong castles, from farms to fishermen’s villages and open cities.
Apsinti on; East of Ainos (Enez), Drugers; in the middle Hebros (Meriç) region, Tynler; In the Salmydessos region, Kalopothaks; Some of the Trak tribes settled in the area from Ainos (Enez) to Kallipolis (Gallipoli) Peninsula. The most famous of these was Odrysler, who lived in the region extending from the valley of Tonzos (Tunca) to the coast and at the peak of his powers.
Odrysai was one of the most important towns of the Odrys people, spread over such a wide area in Thrace. Odrysai was a settlement and a market district, which was built in the confluence of Hebros (Meriç) and Tonzos (Tunca) and in the curves of these rivers. The region was under the influence of immigration, invasion, trade and cultural exchanges as South Eastern Europe was located on a mandatory crossing road to Anatolia. Especially where migrations and transitions did not stop. B.C. In 513, the Persian King Darius continued the Scythian expedition, after passing through Anatolia and Rumelia in Bosphorus (Istanbul Strait), from a place not far from the coast towards Thrace. The first stop of the army was Odrysler’s hometown. Thrace was now under Persian rule. B.C. In 492, Mardonius ‘expedition strengthened the Persians’ sovereignty. Then BC. In 480 the Thracians were forced to give troops to the army of King Xerxes. Xerxes moved from Kallipolis (Gallipoli) Peninsula in the Gulf of Melas (Saros Bay). Ainos (Enez) passed through the city and so all the plain of the River of the river was taken by the Persians.
After the end of the Persians’ domination in the country, they believed that the scattered Trak tribes should be united, and the leadership was given to the Odrysler tribe under the rule of King Teres. So Odrysler, Hebros (Meric) and Kypsela’dan (Ipsala) until the territory of Varna. Odrysler was founded and organized as an aristocratic, feudal state.
In the Roman period (342-341 BC), Odrysler, who lost their battle with the Macedonian King Philip, began to weaken. B.C. After the murder of Philip in 336, fearing unrest, Alexander the Great, BC. In 335, he took a long journey into Thrace. He continued along the coast and reached the foot of the Balkans in ten days after passing through the Crusades and the Nestos River. In Eastern Thrace, he proceeded from a place close to the shore, and after Odrysai and Hebros (Meric), he traveled along Tonzos (Tunca) and passed through a mountain pass. After Alexander’s death, Thrace became a satrap in its own right.
B.C. In 280-279, Thracian was rebuilt by the Galatians, but the Odrysler strengthened their friendship with Macedonia thanks to their kings Kotys. B.C. In the battle against Rome in the years 171-168, Perseus’ only supporter was Kotys. The Romans, who eliminated the Kingdom of Macedonia, took Thrace under their influence.
Caligula, Rhaimetalkes to Thrace, M.S. He made the king in 37-38. After the assassination of the Rhaimetalkes, M.S. In 45, the independence of Thrace was terminated. Now, as a province of Thrace, it was literally included in the Roman Empire.
A.D. Emperor Hadrianus (117-138), who made a trip to the East in 123-124, ordered the construction of new buildings on the settlement called Usudama or Odrysai. The town had developed and began to rise to the city. Odrysai, which became one of the most important settlements of the Roman Empire, gave the name of the emperor who praised him to this position.