HISTORY OF DIYARBAKIR
Located in the Southeastern Anatolia Region, Diyarbakir; Kalesi, İçkalesi, various monumental structures that symbolize the development of urban history, the traditional residence texture and the cultural identity that reflects the documentary values left by the great civilizations dominated here. Not only in Turkey, it is considered one of the most important city in the whole world.
Diyarbakir and its environs, which can make a creative environment within the cultural relations of the great civilizations, between the Asian and European administrations that have been building bridges between the ages of Asia and Europe, have witnessed many köprü firsts, in human history; The recent excavations show that this kind of continuity, as shown by Çayönü and other similar examples, has been able to carry on with all its vitality.
Beyond archaeological research, Diyarbakır reflects the light of a historical depth with its face that can stay on the ground; In terms of settlement principles, it is the most magnificent city that has been able to establish a special relationship with the Tigris River which gives life to the surrounding civilizations. As in the case of the Nile-Egyptian example, this ege great culture doğu which has come through with water, has shown its power uninterruptedly for ages and in a sense it has reached a level which emphasizes the sovereign identity of the Roman Empire by determining its eastern border. The fact that a great part of the works that many religions, societies, states or administrations want to leave in order to reflect themselves and to prove their power are still standing in Diyarbakır today is a great chance in terms of history and cultural diversity of civilization. Amida, Amid, Kara-Amid, Diyar-Bekr, Diyarbekir, Diyarbakir throughout the history, the city is located in the central part of Southeastern Anatolia, called Elcezire, in the northern part of Mesopotamia.
Archaeological surveys were conducted during the chipped stone and Mesolithic periods. The ruins of this period were found in Hassuni, near the Eğil-Silvan, and in the Hilar caves near Ergani on the Tigris River and its tributaries.
Çayönü Hill, near Ergani, which is one of the oldest village settlements of Anatolia, which is one of the oldest village settlements, sheds light on the history of civilization not only on our history but also on the region. B.C. Çayönü, where the first foundations of today’s urban civilization, which had been inhabited intermittently between 7.500-5.000 years, were laid on the technological lifestyle, also known as the 00 Neolithic Revolution ten, where people migrated from nomadic to settled village life, from hunting and gathering to food production. It is a lively and interesting settlement with many firsts in the discoveries related to the cultural history in which environmental relations have changed. The cultivation of plants such as wild wheat and lentils has become important in the science world with the domestication of sheep and goat.
Again on the Grikihaciyan Hill near Ergani; A single phase of culture dated to the end of the Halab Culture, which was called the “Advanced Village Stage” or the Chalcolithic Age, was seen. The Halaf Culture is famous for its richly decorated pottery with round plan dome houses seen in Northern Iraq, Syria and Southeastern Anatolia.
Excavations at Üçtepe Höyük near the Bismil district of Diyarbakır revealed an important center dating to the 2nd Millennium, Neo-Assyrian, Hellenistic and Roman Imperial periods.
On the other hand, the Birkleyn caves near Lice and the Eğil Castle in Eğil and the inscriptions on the rocks have found important artifacts from the Assyrians.
Although its exact date is not known, the first settlement in the city was found at the mound called Amida or Virankale in this area where the steep area, called Fis Rock, which is 100 m high from the Dicle bed, took place on the present İçkale area. It is accepted that the first building with a castle function was built by the Hurris who ruled the region in the 3rd millennium BC. Then the city under the sovereignty of the Assyrians, Urartians, Alexander the Great, the Salafucians and the Parthians – the Romans – Sasanians alone or together; He lived under the Byzantine rule from Rome until the first half of the seventeenth century and gained an identity as an Islamic city after 639.
M.S. In 349, it was enlarged by Roman Emperor Constantinus and some parts were repaired. The Umayyads, Abbasids, Şeyhoğulları, Hamdaniler, Büveyhoğulları, Mervanoğulları, Great Seljuk and Damascus Seljuks, İnaloğulları, Nisanoğulları, Hasankeyf Artukluları, Egypt and Şam Eyyubileri, Anatolian Seljuks, Mardin Artukids, Akkoyunlu Ottoman settlement