The earliest history of Muş begins with the Urartians; It is not known precisely who the ancestors of the Urartians were, since the settlements of II.bin were not yet brought to light.
The dark historical periods of the Eastern Anatolia filled with unknowns have been enlightened to some extent with the Assyrian sources and inscriptions. The first cuneiform sources belong to the period of Assyrian King Salmanassar (M.Ö.1274-1245). According to the Assyrian sources, in the mountainous regions of Eastern Anatolia there were independent small principalities under the name of Nairi Confederation. These principalities, living under the pressure of the Assyrians, rebelled as they had the opportunity to kill the Assyrian king before Salmanassard. 1. Salmanassar entered the Urartian territory to suppress this rebellion. The Assyrians’ attacks against the Urartu-Nairi uprisings lasted for 400 years at intervals.
The exits of the Urartians on the stage of history BC. XIII. YYarıa Although the state as a state organization of BC. IX. There century. The Urartians, who were initially in the form of a dispersed confederation, were the King of Assyria III. After the first Urartu King Aramu (ca. 850-840), the contemporary of Salmanassar, they became a united kingdom.
The real founder of the Urartu state, Aramu, was king I. Sarduri (ca. 840-830). The period of King Ispini (BC 830-810) was the period when the Urartu state (810-786), the Urartu state, became the most powerful state of the Front Asia and the state’s sovereignty area expanded. B.C. VIII. YY. In the middle, the sovereignty of the Urartu State spread throughout the Eastern Anatolia. 1. After the Argishi (786-764 BC), his son II passed away. Sarduri’s period (764-735 BC) is considered the peak of the Urartian State. The Urartian fortress uncovered during the excavations in 1965 in the Kayalıdere area of Muş Varto belongs to the period of this King.
The Urartu State’s history continued with endless attacks by Assyrians, Cimmerians and Scythians, Urartu State, BC. In 585, the Iskid raids were finally destroyed.
The importance of the Moush for the Urartu State was that the western road of the kingdom was in an important center. After passing the Malazgirt Plain, the road to the west from the capital Tappa will arrive along the Murat River valley from the south of Varto to the Mus plain. From here, he headed to the west, and from Elazığ-Malatya via Bingöl to Central Anatolia and Northern Syria.
Medes was followed by Urartus in the first period of Muş. Medler, who lived in present-day Azerbaijan Azerbaijan, turned to the Muş Plain after eliminating the Assyrian State (609 BC). The Medes had no difficulty in eradicating the Urartian state, which was tired of the Kimmer-Iskite attacks, from the stage of history. However, the dominance of the Medes in Eastern Anatolia did not last long. The Persians defeated this army by defeating the Med army (550 BC).
The Persians’ dominance in Eastern Anatolia lasted for about 200 centuries. The Persians climbed to the summit of their forces in I.Dareios. Muş and its surroundings took place in the Great Satrap of Babylon under the Persian rule. Kiros, his younger brother, who raises his rebellion against Artakserkses, lost the war and carried out the march of Anabasis, famous for the defeat of the so-called “tens of thousands Art. (401 BC) While arasındaki tens of thousands kit were drawn towards Aras and Kelkit valleys, they passed the areas between Bingöl and Muş. The Greek commander and historian Xenophon, who ruled the lottery of this army, tells that the people living in the highlands of Muş and the surrounding area continued to carve their life, providing their army with wheat, barley, vegetables, meat and riding horses.
Muş and its environs, long centuries witnessed the struggles of the Romans, the Parthians and the Armenian feudal lords. Although this region of Eastern Anatolia frequently changed hands among the aforementioned states, it was the Parthians who overstepped these struggles, the supremacy of the Roman Empire was never permanent. The last of the endless battles between the Parthians and the Romans took place in 215-216. When the Roman Emperor Macrinus, Nisibis (Nusaybin today), withdrew, the Roman dominance from the South East Anatolia to the west of the Euphrates ended (217).
The State of Sassanid State (MS 226), which was founded by Ardeşir I, who came from the Sassanid dynasty of Parthian and Persian origin, emerged as a new power in the history of Eastern Anatolia. In a very short period of time, the Sassanids expanded their domain of dominance and became the biggest rivals of the Roman Empire. The struggles of the Roman Parthian centuries have now been replaced by the Roman-Sassanid struggles.
The Sassanid rule lasted about 400 years. When the ancient age ended with the separation of the Roman Empire, Eastern Anatolia was going to be the scene of the Byzantine-Sassanid struggles, which would continue for many years.
MIDDLE AGE IN MIDDLE AGE
Mash and the surrounding Sassanid rule during the reign of Emperor Heraklios, the Sassanid king Shahbaraz